In the whole world where we live, there are 7,099 known languages, will the differences and the large number of languages make the keyboard different in each country?
Will the difference in language and country affect the keyboard used for typing every day? Does the whole world only use a QWERTY keyboard?
In fact, this language difference turned out to be one of the reasons why some countries have different keyboard patterns.
It is true that in the USA a QWERTY keyboard is standard, but apparently there are some countries that do not use a QWERTY keyboard with a different key layout from the standard QWERTY keyboard. This aims to adjust the language used with the difference in sentences and the layout of the keys on the keyboard in that country.
What are the International keyboards besides the QWERTY keyboard? And how is it different from a standard QWERTY keyboard.
What is Keyboard?
Keyboard is one of the input devices in a computer system. The keyboard is one of the computer accessories that has a very vital role. Without a keyboard it would be very difficult to enter and execute commands. The main function of the keyboard is of course to input the characters needed to run computational commands.
The standard layout or character arrangement that is often encountered is QWERTY. The QWERTY layout is indeed adopted from a standard typewriter. Many also know that the QWERTY layout is the most difficult arrangement to type in because it was originally designed for typewriters to avoid frequent mechanical errors.
But it turns out that there are still many people who don’t know about a keyboard layout other than QWERTY. There are still many people who think that all keyboards in the world have the same layout, namely QWERTY. Though there are many other keyboard layouts. Well, let’s try a little to examine what types of keyboard layouts have been created.
Basically the keyboard layouts are arranged based on their respective regions or countries because there are many countries that use non-Latin characters or letters according to their national languages which have their own characters as standards, there are also keyboard layouts that are designed to be effective and efficient so that users can do their typing work easily. fast and does not cause confusion or pain in the limbs, especially the fingers when typing, and there is also a keyboard layout that is specifically designed for certain jobs such as programmers.
To make it easier to discuss these various keyboard layouts, they will be divided into 2 general categories, namely keyboard layouts for Latin characters and for non-Latin characters. Latin characters are alphabetic characters from A to Z that we already know and use everyday. While non-Latin characters are special characters that are usually owned by certain countries or regions.
Various layouts or keyboard layouts for Latin characters are divided into 2, namely QWERTY and non-QWERTY keyboard layouts. The QWERTY keyboard layout is categorized separately because it has quite a lot of layout variants.
Different Options in Keyboards and Keypads
Types of keyboards along with the times and technology are becoming more and more with the main functions are still the same but are made to meet other needs other than the main need for input. Here are 13 types of keyboards that exist in the world today:
1. Qwerty Keyboards
The QWERTY keyboard is the most widely used standard keyboard in the world. As a keyboard with a QWERTY pattern which is the basis for the development of other keyboards. Most people who have ever typed will start from this QWERTY type keyboard.
2. Wired Keyboards
This type of keyboard is the most frequently used keyboard in the office. Besides having a low price, this keyboard is also very familiar among workers who use computers. This keyboard uses a PS/2 port.
3. Numeric Keypads
The numeric keyboard was created to meet the needs of accountants to help them input numbers and mathematical calculations. This type of keyboard is made to complement a keyboard that does not have a numpad, usually on a keyboard other than a FULL SIZE keyboard that does not have a numpad.
4. Ergonomic Keyboards
This type of keyboard is a keyboard that is made to support ergonomic needs and to help users can use it longer. Ergonomic keyboards are basically ordinary keyboards that are redesigned to support a better level of ergonomics than ordinary keyboards. Ergonomic keyboards usually have additional accessories such as a place to rest your hands, commonly called a hand wrest, which will help you more easily adjust the most comfortable position when using it.
5. Wireless Keyboards
This type of keyboard utilizes a Radio connection to connect to computer devices. Wireless keyboards are made for users who need more distance than other regular keyboard users.
6. USB Keyboards
For now, the USB keyboard is the most widely used type of keyboard. The difference with a wired keyboard is in the type of port connected to the computer. Wired keyboards use PS/2 ports, while USB keyboards use USB type A.
7. Bluetooth Keyboards
In general, this type of keyboard utilizes a Bluetooth connection to connect to computer devices. Wireless keyboards are made for users who need more distance than other regular keyboard users. Typing from a distance of 5 meters with a computer connected to a large screen for example.
8. Magic Keyboards
Magic keyboard is a product made by Apple, this keyboard is quite unique because it is one of the devices in Apple’s ecosystem. This keyboard is connected via bluetooth, has a rechargeable battery. But this Apple-made keyboard is quite expensive.
9. Backlit Keyboards
This type of keyboard is made to help you type more easily in low light conditions. The backlight behind the keyboard will definitely make it easier for you to type in dark conditions.
10. Gaming Keyboards
Gaming keyboards are dedicated to gamers, this type of keyboard has a faster response speed than ordinary keyboards. The design and color of the keys are a special characteristic for this type of keyboard.
11. Flexible Keyboards
These keyboards offer the same features as standard QWERTY keyboards, but they’re designed for maximum portability. Flexible keyboards are usually made of silicon, so you can roll them up and take them anywhere.
12. Membrane Keyboards
Membrane keyboards are designed without space between the individual keys. The keys are pressure-sensitive, with the different characters outlined on a flat surface.
13. Mechanical Keyboards
This type of keyboard is made to support the fun of typing, the clicky keys are very pleasant to type. Mechanical keyboards can do that because under the buttons there are switches and springs on each of the buttons..
Keyboard Layout for Latin Characters
It is the most common keyboard layout and is used all over the world. In some countries, this QWERTY keyboard layout is combined with the distinctive character of that country. The name QWERTY itself is taken from the 6 alphabetic characters arranged in the layout. As previously noted, the QWERTY keyboard layout was adopted from the standard typewriter layout.
French contains various accented letters that are not on the US keyboard, so the line number on the French keyboard is used mainly for accented letters. Some other buttons are also moved on the French keyboard (not QWERTY, the first line reads Azerty).
QWertz keyboard is used mainly in Central Europe. There are even some of these format versions to fit various languages and dialects used in this world region.
Italy is a country where many users use this layout, although not exclusively or as a standard. Changes in position in the QZERTY layout from QWERTY are the position of the letters Z and W are exchanged and the position of the letter M is moved to the right of the letter L as in the AZERTY layout.
There are several other international keyboards too, such as the Russian keyboard which displays a series of completely different letters from the Cyrillic alphabet.
Apart from changes to accommodate language differences, there are several keyboards that display different layouts based on efficiency in typing English.
The most prominent is called the Dvorak keyboard, named after the inventor August Dvorak, which finds a key configuration that is more efficient and convenient to increase the speed of typing and user experience.
Using this layout, users can type more words without moving their fingers from the house line, although the broad use of QWERTY design means this layout is rarely seen or taught.
The COLEMAK keyboard layout is basically a massive modification of the QWERTY keyboard layout. There are 17 characters that are positioned. This modification aims to create an ergonomic keyboard layout, easy to use, speed up performance, but also easy to learn because the layout is still based on QWERTY. COLEMAK keyboard is claimed to be able to accelerate finger movement 2.2 times than the QWERTY keyboard layout. COLEmak is an alternative keyboard layout that is appropriate as a substitute for QWERTY where users do not need to learn too much. COLEMAK is currently the third most popular keyboard layout after QWERTY and DVORAK.
JCUKEN or ЙЦУКЕН is also known as YCUKEN, YTSUKEN and JTSUKEN. This is the layout for the “Cyrillic” character owned by the Russian state. This layout has existed and has been used since Russia was still part of the USSR (Soviet Union). A variation of the JCUKEN layout used in the Mongolian region is called FTsUJEN (ФЦУЖЭН).
Started development in 2004. This NEO layout is optimized for use in German. Not only that, this layout is also designed to make programming easier. What’s interesting is that this NEO Layout consists of 6 layers. Layer 1 is the Latin character button arrangement, Layer 2 contains the Latin character button arrangement for capital letters or upright, Layer 3 is filled with special characters that are often used in programming, Layer 4 contains symbols and number characters, Layer 5 contains the button layout. Greek characters, and Layer 6 contains the symbols of mathematical operations and capital letters of Greek characters.
This keyboard layout was created for shorthand purposes. A stenographer can type very fast using this PLOVER layout. Typists who use the DVORAK layout are able to type an average of 120 words per minute, stenographers are able to type up to 300 words per minute, even the world record reaches 360 words per minute. The concept of the keyboard layout is the same as playing a piano, being able to use several keys at once like playing chords. To use the PLOVER layout, a special program is needed to program the standard QWERTY layout into PLOVER.
It is a keyboard layout originating and optimized for the French country region that supports all EU Latin, Greek and Esperanto characters. The BÉPO layout is based on an ergonomic keyboard layout where users in France are able to type quickly and easily, and are also designed to make programming easier.
There are actually 2 keyboard layouts that are widely used in Turkey. Turkish-Q which has a layout based on the QWERtY layout, as well as Turkish-F or F-keyboard. The F-keyboard was designed by hsan Sıtkı Yener based on research on the letters or characters that are often used in the Turkish language so that in the F-keyboard layout, the balance of the use of the left hand compared to the right hand is obtained when using this keyboard layout, which is 49% for the left hand and 51% right handed.
Keyboard Layouts for Non-Latin Characters
Let’s put that aside and try to learn more about the various keyboard layouts. If in the Series 1 article the discussion focuses on keyboard layouts for Latin characters, then in this follow-up article the focus of the discussion is on various kinds of keyboard layouts for non-Latin characters.
Keyboard layouts for non-Latin characters are common and are used in regions or countries that have special characters according to the official language of the region or country. Keyboard layouts for non-Latin characters are usually combined with Latin character layouts, of course the most commonly combined is the QWERTY keyboard layout so that in a keyboard there are 2 layouts, the main layout is the non-Latin special characters for each region or country and the layout QWERTY, an example layout can be seen in the image of each layout below.
Lots of keyboard layouts for non-latin characters. For the non-Latin character keyboard layouts in this article, we will take an inventory of the keyboard layouts in the Europe-Asia Border region, the Middle East, and most of South Asia.
This keyboard layout is designed for use in countries or regions that use Arabic as the official language, namely countries in the West Asia Region or the Middle East, North Africa, and several other African countries. Writing using Arabic characters is different from other characters, if writing generally starts from left to right, then writing Arabic language and characters starts from right to left.
Used on the territory of the state of Armenia. The characters of letters, numbers and other symbols in the Armenian language are basically the same as Greek. The characters of the Armenian alphabet were introduced starting in 405 AD which later underwent several changes. There are 2 standard types of Armenian keyboard layouts namely Western or Western Armenian and Eastern or Eastern Armenian. The Armenian keyboard layout is also used in some areas of the Caucasian region located on the borders of Europe and Asia.
Brahmic is the source of various languages from countries in the South Asian region. In this region, almost every country has its own writing character so for the Brahmic coverage area itself has several keyboard layouts.
Is a keyboard layout used in the territory of the country of Bangladesh. This Bengali keyboard layout consists of several variants based on the computer system and its developer:
- Bengali InScript, used on computers with Microsoft Windows operating system.
- Shahidlipi, used by Mac-based computers since 1985.
- Probhat, widely applied to most Linux operating systems or distros.
- Bijoy, developed by Ananda Computer which became popular in the era of the 1990s.
- Akhor Bangla.
Apart from that, there are several other variants of the Bengali keyboard layout. There are also differences in the layouts used on mobile devices.
Inscript is short for Indian Script. From the name it is clear that this InScript keyboard layout is intended and used in the territory of India which is also still sourced from Brahmic. This keyboard layout contains 12 character sets used for writing Indian languages including Devanagari, Bengali, Gujarati, Gurmukhi, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu and others.
Khmer is the official language of Cambodia because the original ethnic group is Khmer. It is an Autroasiatic language which is a blend of Asia and Australia. The language and character of the letters used are strongly influenced by religious matters, especially the influence of Hinduism and Buddhism. Uniquely, in writing the Khmer language, the use of spaces is to separate sentences instead of words, so that in the Khmer keyboard layout the use of spaces is quite rare and can only be activated by pressing the Shift + Space key.
It is the language spoken by the Sinhalese people who inhabit Sri Lanka. The Sinhala keyboard layout is based on the pre-existing Wijesekara typewriter layout.
It is clear that the Thai keyboard layout originated and is used by Thai citizens with their Siamese language.
The layout of the Tibetan keyboard varies, there are at least 3 variants:
- Tibetan China. Designed for use by the Tibetan speaking community of China.
- International Tibet.
- Dzongkha. The Dzongkha keyboard layout is used by the country of Bhutan. This keyboard layout uses characters from Tibetan and Dzongkha languages.
Cyrillic / Cyrillic
It is an alphabetic character that is heavily influenced by most European and Asian cultures. Some countries that use Cyrillic characters with their respective keyboard layouts are:
The Bulgarian keyboard layout is designed so that users can do their typing job in Bulgarian quickly and efficiently.
The Moldovan Cyrillic keyboard layout is based on a mix of Russian and Serbian keyboard layouts.
Russian uses the JKUKEN keyboard layout. The JCUKEN keyboard layout usually combines Latin characters and Russian characters in the keys.
In the Serbian keyboard layout, apart from having most of the Cyrillic alphabet, 6 characters from Serbia are added. Usually the layout is combined with the QWERTZ keyboard layout.
The Ukrainian keyboard layout is basically the same as the Russian keyboard layout, but because there is a character used in Ukrainian and not in the Russian keyboard layout, a slight modification was made by adding the missing character to the layout.
Georgian keyboard layout is used to input the characters used in the country of Georgia called detgan Mkhedruli. Usually combined with a QWERTY keyboard layout.
The characters of the Greek alphabet are similar to the Latin alphabet but are mostly different in form and pronunciation. The Greek keyboard layout follows the standard keyboard layout for Latin characters that are widely used, of course the QWERTY keyboard layout, but there is a difference where the Greek alphabet characters are 2 letters less than the Latin alphabet.
Hebrew is a language that belongs to the Afroasiatic category or a language that is influenced by Africa and Asia. Hebrew is officially spoken in the state of Israel and is a minority in Poland. The keyboard layout is usually combined with Latin, Arabic, and even Russian characters. Like Arabic, Hebrew is written from right to left.
This is the language and keyboard layout used in most of Eastern Canada.
Tifinagh is the character or alphabet used for writing the Berber language. Berber is the language spoken by most countries in the North African region. The Tifinagh keyboard layout has several variants:
Tamazight is another name for the Berber language. This Tifinagh keyboard layout for Tamazigh is used in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mauritania, Niger, and Mali.
The country of Morocco redesigned its own standard Tifinagh keyboard layout used for writing Tamazigh, the layout development was carried out by the Royal institute of the Amazigh culture (IRCAM).
Keyboard Layout for East Asian Region Language Characters
This variant of the keyboard layout used in the East Asia region is still included in the keyboard layout category for non-Latin characters, which in its application are often combined with Latin characters. As in the realization that countries and ethnic groups in East Asia have different official languages and letters that are used for communication purposes. The region in East Asia is basically divided into 3 regions based on the language used, namely Japanese, Chinese and Korean.
As previously mentioned, the major regional divisions based on languages in East Asia are divided into 3, namely Japanese, Chinese and Korean, so in the discussion of the keyboard layout which of course cannot be separated from the language used, it will be divided into 3 regional divisions in general according to the language used. used it.
The Korean keyboard layout is used to accommodate writing on the computer for Hangul characters. Divided into 2, namely Dubeolsik and Sebeolsik.
Is a keyboard layout that is generally used in South Korea. Is a keyboard layout designed for Hangul characters combined with a QWERTY keyboard layout. In this keyboard layout there is an extra button located to the right of the Space key whose function is used to change the Hangul or QWERTY character input mode.
The Sebeolsik 390 keyboard layout appeared in 1990 based on the project of Dr. Kong Byung Woo. This keyboard layout is considered more ergonomic than the Dubeolsik keyboard layout, but the use of the Sebeolsik 390 keyboard layout is not as much as the Dubeolsik keyboard layout.
This Final Sebeolsk keyboard layout is a development and is the final design of the Sebeolsik layout from the Dr. project. Kong Byung Woo.
It is the same keyboard layout as other Sebeolsik keyboard layout variants, but in its use to input Hangul characters, there is no need to press the Shift key.
1. Mainland China
The keyboard layout in Mainland China uses the standard QWERTY keyboard layout with the United States (US) which is slightly modified and of course is combined with Chinese characters.
Keyboards available in Taiwan usually adopt the Zhuyin keyboard layout or also known as BOPOMOFO, and are also combined with the keyboard layout for Latin characters such as QWERTY.
3. Hong Kong
Keyboard layouts used in Mainland China and Taiwan are also widely found and used in Hong Kong, even Japanese keyboard layouts are also used. Another keyboard layout is the keyboard layout for Cantonese which is widely used in Hong Kong.
The keyboard layout used in Japan is basically a standard QWERTY keyboard layout combined with the Japanese kanji characters Hiragana or Katakana.
In addition, the use of the keyboard layout for non-latin characters in combination with the QWERTY keyboard layout can usually also be used without changing the mode to non-latin characters. For example, for a Japanese keyboard layout and if you want to write as misako, the user can simply type the letters MISAKO directly through the Latin character keyboard input, and the computer will automatically convert it to kanji characters.
If you look at the development of the world, it is still very possible in the future new keyboard layout designs will appear. It is very possible that regional languages that have special characters will have special keyboard layouts, for example in Indonesia, which has several regional languages that have special characters or scripts, such as Javanese which has Javanese, Balinese and Sundanese script characters. the script itself although on average is a relic of the ancestors and is ancient. It would be very extraordinary if these characters were entered as special characters and combined with Latin characters as a keyboard layout like a country that has special characters and its own keyboard layout.
It is also possible to develop the keyboard layout again for a faster, more efficient, and painless typing process. It is still very possible to develop a keyboard layout that is intended for certain jobs or activities.
As a computer user, you should need to do a little exploration of the instruments or devices used, one of which is the keyboard. Try to try at least 1 latin keyboard layout besides the QWERTY layout. To change the keyboard layout is very easy, by default, each operating system is equipped with a variety of standard keyboard layouts around the world. Meanwhile, to get a keyboard device with a certain layout can be done in several ways which will also be discussed in another article.
Do all countries use Qwerty keyboards?
No, some countries use keyboards with different layouts. This is because of the differences in the language of each country. Such as Russia, China, Ukraine, Turkey, and many more. This difference is made to facilitate adaptation and to make it easier for people in certain countries to use the keyboard to type, which is why the layout in some countries is different.
Globally, Latin keyboard with QWERTY layout forgets the International standard which is mostly used around the world.
What is the difference between US and international keyboard?
The most important differences are the size and position of Enter/Return, and some differences in layout. The ~key and “\”key have completely different positions on both keyboards. Also, US keyboards don’t have a € label (although it can be entered: Alt+Shift+2).
International keyboards (‘keyboard type’ = ISO) also have one more key than US keyboards (‘keyboard type’ = ANSI). Some Apple keyboard layouts use those keys for important characters, and this can cause problems for users using only US keyboards.
Is US and UK keyboards the same?
There are some differences between the US keyboard and the UK keyboard. These are some of the changes made to the UK keyboard layout:
- On UK keyboards the “AltGr” key is added to the right of the space bar.
- The # symbol is replaced with the “£” symbol.
- The “@” button is marked with the ( ) symbol.
- The symbol “~” is replaced with the symbol “#” and the symbol “~” is replaced with the symbol ( ‘ ).
- The “\” symbol is moved to the “Z” button position
What do Foreign Keyboard Look Like?
You can find keyboards with foreign layouts such as keyboard layouts in East Asian countries such as China, Korea, Japan, Arabic, Turkey, Thailand, Bangladesh, Armenia, Brahmic, InScript and many more keyboards with very foreign layouts.
Why are keyboards different in different countries?
If you find a keyboard layout in a different country that doesn’t use the QWERTY layout which is an International standard, then it’s the keyboard with the layout that applies in that country. Differences in keyboard layout in certain countries due to differences in the language used. Not all countries understand English, which in the end they make a layout that applies in their country with the national language of their own country.
The use of symbols that do not apply in their country which is finally replaced with symbols that apply in their country such as the “$” symbol which is replaced by the “£” symbol in England.