Last Updated on May 31, 2023
In today’s digital age, typing has become an integral part of our daily lives. Whether it’s writing an email, working on a document, or engaging in online conversations, the speed and accuracy of our typing can significantly impact our productivity. Mechanical keyboards have emerged as a popular choice among typists, offering a range of benefits that can enhance both speed and accuracy.
Typing speed and accuracy play crucial roles in various professional and personal settings. Fast and accurate typing can save time, increase efficiency, and improve overall productivity. Conversely, slow and error-prone typing can lead to frustration, reduced output, and even physical discomfort. Recognizing the significance of typing skills, individuals are constantly seeking ways to improve their speed and accuracy.
The purpose of this article is to explore the impact of mechanical keyboards on typing speed and accuracy. We will delve into the mechanics of these keyboards, highlight their ergonomic features, and discuss how they can enhance both the speed and precision of your typing. Additionally, we will provide insights into the transition process from traditional keyboards to mechanical keyboards and offer guidance on selecting the right mechanical keyboard for your needs.
Understanding Mechanical Keyboards
A. Definition and components of mechanical keyboards
Mechanical keyboards are a type of keyboard that utilize individual mechanical switches beneath each keycap. These switches are responsible for registering keystrokes when pressed. Unlike membrane keyboards that use a rubber dome membrane, mechanical keyboards offer a more tactile and responsive typing experience.
The components of a mechanical keyboard include:
- Keycaps: The visible and removable key covers that users press.
- Switches: The individual mechanical components beneath the keycaps that register keystrokes.
- Springs: Found within the switches, these provide the force required to press the keys.
- Backplate or PCB (Printed Circuit Board): The underlying surface that holds the switches and keycap stabilizers.
- Keycap stabilizers: Mechanical components that ensure the larger keys remain stable during typing.
B. Different types of mechanical switches
Mechanical keyboards come with a variety of switch options, each offering distinct characteristics that cater to different typing preferences. Here are some common types:
- Tactile switches: These switches provide tactile feedback, offering a slight bump or resistance when the key is pressed. They give typists a tactile feel, indicating that the keystroke has been registered.
- Linear switches: Linear switches provide a smooth keystroke without any tactile feedback or audible click. They are often preferred for their quiet operation and consistent feel.
- Clicky switches: Clicky switches provide both tactile feedback and an audible click sound when pressed. They offer a satisfying typing experience with a distinct click for each keystroke.
Each switch type has its unique feel, actuation force, and sound profile. Typists can choose a switch based on their personal preference for typing style, feedback, and noise level.
C. Advantages of mechanical keyboards over membrane keyboards
Mechanical keyboards offer several advantages over membrane keyboards, making them a popular choice among professionals and enthusiasts. Here are some key advantages:
- Enhanced tactile feedback: Mechanical keyboards provide a more pronounced tactile feel, allowing typists to feel when a key has been successfully actuated. This feedback helps improve typing accuracy and provides a satisfying typing experience.
- Increased durability: Mechanical switches are known for their durability and longevity. They are designed to withstand millions of keystrokes, making them highly reliable for prolonged use. In contrast, membrane keyboards tend to wear out over time and may require more frequent replacements.
- Customizability options: Mechanical keyboards often offer extensive customization options, allowing users to personalize their typing experience. This can include swapping keycaps, adjusting actuation force, or even programming macros for increased productivity. The ability to tailor the keyboard to individual preferences is a significant advantage for many users.
By understanding the definition and components of mechanical keyboards, exploring different types of mechanical switches, and recognizing their advantages over membrane keyboards, individuals can make informed decisions when choosing a mechanical keyboard that aligns with their typing needs and preferences.
Ergonomics and Typing Comfort
Ergonomics plays a crucial role in promoting comfort and reducing the risk of discomfort or injury during typing sessions. When it comes to typing, it’s important to prioritize ergonomics to maintain good posture, minimize strain on the hands and wrists, and enhance overall typing comfort. Mechanical keyboards are designed with various ergonomic features that contribute to a more comfortable typing experience.
A. Importance of ergonomics in typing
Ergonomics refers to the study of how people interact with their environment and the design of products to optimize efficiency and well-being. In the context of typing, ergonomics focuses on creating a workspace and using tools that minimize the strain on the body, especially the hands, wrists, and arms.
Proper ergonomics in typing can help prevent conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, and other repetitive strain injuries. It promotes better posture, reduces muscle fatigue, and allows for more natural movement during typing sessions. By considering ergonomic principles, typists can improve their overall comfort, productivity, and long-term health.
B. Ergonomic features of mechanical keyboards
Mechanical keyboards are known for their ergonomic design elements that prioritize user comfort and typing efficiency. Let’s explore some of the key ergonomic features commonly found in mechanical keyboards:
- Wrist rests: Many mechanical keyboards come with detachable or integrated wrist rests. These padded supports provide a comfortable resting surface for the wrists, reducing strain on the wrist joints and promoting a more neutral typing position. Wrist rests help prevent the wrists from bending excessively, which can lead to discomfort and potential injuries.
- Adjustable tilt and height: Mechanical keyboards often offer adjustable tilt and height options, allowing users to customize the keyboard’s angle and elevation to suit their personal preferences and ergonomic needs. Adjusting the tilt and height of the keyboard helps align the hands, wrists, and arms in a more natural and relaxed position, reducing muscle tension and promoting better typing posture.
- Keycap materials for comfort: The choice of keycap materials can greatly impact typing comfort. Mechanical keyboards often feature keycaps made from materials such as PBT (polybutylene terephthalate) or ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). These materials offer a more textured and durable surface, enhancing comfort and providing a satisfying typing experience. The texture of the keycaps can help prevent fingers from slipping and improve overall typing accuracy.
Additionally, some mechanical keyboards offer sculpted or contoured keycap profiles. These profiles are designed to match the natural curve of the fingers, promoting a more ergonomic typing position and reducing finger strain.
By incorporating these ergonomic features, mechanical keyboards prioritize user comfort and strive to create a typing experience that minimizes the risk of discomfort or injury. Typists can benefit from the enhanced comfort and ergonomic support provided by mechanical keyboards, leading to improved typing accuracy, reduced fatigue, and increased productivity.
Remember, choosing the right mechanical keyboard that suits your ergonomic needs is essential. Considering factors such as wrist support, adjustable features, and keycap materials can contribute to a more comfortable and ergonomic typing experience.
The Relationship between Mechanical Keyboards and Typing Speed
Certainly! The relationship between mechanical keyboards and typing speed is influenced by various factors. Let’s explore them in detail:
A. Factors affecting typing speed:
- Key actuation force: The amount of force required to activate a key plays a crucial role in typing speed. Mechanical keyboards typically have lower actuation forces compared to membrane keyboards. This means that less effort is needed to register keystrokes, resulting in faster and more efficient typing.
- Key travel distance: Key travel distance refers to the distance a key needs to be pressed before it registers a keystroke. Mechanical keyboards generally have shorter key travel distances compared to membrane keyboards. This reduced distance allows typists to type more quickly, as they don’t have to press the keys as far down.
- Key rollover: Key rollover refers to a keyboard’s ability to register multiple keystrokes simultaneously. Mechanical keyboards often offer full or n-key rollover, meaning they can accurately detect and record multiple key presses, even during fast typing. This feature eliminates the risk of key ghosting, where certain key combinations are not recognized, enabling typists to type at their desired speed without any input limitations.
B. How mechanical keyboards enhance typing speed:
- Reduced actuation force: One way mechanical keyboards enhance typing speed is by reducing the actuation force required to register keystrokes. With lower actuation forces, typists can glide across the keys effortlessly, resulting in faster typing speed and reduced strain on their fingers. This feature is particularly beneficial for individuals who type for extended periods.
- Shorter key travel distance: Mechanical keyboards have shorter key travel distances, allowing for quicker and more responsive keystrokes. Typists can achieve higher words-per-minute (WPM) rates with mechanical keyboards as they don’t have to exert as much physical effort to press the keys fully. This reduced travel distance enables faster typing and helps to minimize finger fatigue during prolonged typing sessions.
- Simultaneous key presses: Mechanical keyboards with full or n-key rollover can accurately capture and register multiple simultaneous key presses. This feature is especially advantageous for typists who need to perform quick and complex keyboard shortcuts or input combinations, such as gamers or programmers. With the ability to recognize simultaneous key presses, typists can maintain their desired typing speed without any input lag or missed keystrokes.
In summary, mechanical keyboards enhance typing speed through various mechanisms such as reduced actuation force, shorter key travel distance, and the ability to register simultaneous key presses accurately. These features contribute to faster and more efficient typing, allowing typists to increase their productivity and enjoy a smoother typing experience.
Enhancing Typing Accuracy with Mechanical Keyboards
A. Common errors and challenges in typing
Typing accurately can be a challenge due to various factors. Some common errors and challenges faced by typists include:
- Misspellings: Making spelling mistakes while typing can result in errors and affect the overall accuracy of the content.
- Omitted characters: Accidentally skipping or omitting characters while typing can lead to incomplete words or sentences.
- Incorrect punctuation: Placing punctuation marks incorrectly or missing them altogether can alter the meaning of the text and introduce inaccuracies.
- Fatigue: Prolonged typing sessions can lead to finger fatigue, causing typists to make more errors and reduce overall accuracy.
B. How mechanical keyboards improve accuracy
Mechanical keyboards offer several features and advantages that can significantly improve typing accuracy. Here are three key ways mechanical keyboards enhance accuracy:
- Consistent actuation force: Mechanical keyboards provide consistent actuation force across all keys. This means that each key requires the same amount of pressure to register a keystroke. The uniformity in actuation force allows typists to develop muscle memory and type with greater accuracy. With membrane keyboards, the actuation force may vary, leading to inconsistencies in typing speed and accuracy.
- Clear tactile feedback: Mechanical keyboards are designed to provide clear tactile feedback. When a key is pressed, typists can feel a physical bump or click, indicating that the keystroke has been registered. This tactile feedback helps typists become more aware of their keystrokes, reducing the chances of making errors. The distinct feedback allows typists to develop a rhythm and better control their typing speed and accuracy.
- Reduced ghosting and key jamming: Ghosting occurs when a keyboard fails to register certain key combinations, resulting in missed or incorrect keystrokes. Key jamming refers to keys getting stuck or not releasing properly after being pressed. Mechanical keyboards, especially those with full or n-key rollover, are built to handle multiple simultaneous key presses accurately. This eliminates the issues of ghosting and key jamming, ensuring that all keystrokes are accurately detected and registered. By avoiding input errors caused by these issues, typists can significantly improve their typing accuracy.
Overall, the consistent actuation force, clear tactile feedback, and reduced issues of ghosting and key jamming make mechanical keyboards a preferred choice for those seeking to enhance their typing accuracy. By providing a more reliable and precise typing experience, mechanical keyboards empower typists to produce error-free content efficiently.
Training and Adaptation to Mechanical Keyboards
A. Transitioning from membrane to mechanical keyboards
Transitioning from a membrane keyboard to a mechanical keyboard may require a short adaptation period, as the typing experience and feel are different. Here are some tips to ease the transition and make the most of your mechanical keyboard:
- Familiarize yourself with the new feel: Mechanical keyboards have individual switches beneath each key, which provide a distinct tactile feedback and a more responsive typing experience. Spend some time typing on the mechanical keyboard to get accustomed to the feel and feedback it offers.
- Adjust to the actuation force: Mechanical keyboards typically have a lower actuation force compared to membrane keyboards. This means you’ll need to exert less pressure on the keys to register a keystroke. Take some time to adjust your typing technique and find the right balance between speed and the lighter touch required by mechanical switches.
- Explore different switch types: Mechanical keyboards come with various switch types, each offering unique characteristics. These include tactile switches, linear switches, and clicky switches. Take the opportunity to try out different switch types to find the one that suits your typing style and preferences. Some prefer the tactile feedback of switches like Cherry MX Brown, while others may enjoy the smooth keystrokes of linear switches like Cherry MX Red.
B. Familiarization with different mechanical switches
Mechanical keyboards offer a range of switch options, and understanding the differences between them is crucial for finding the right fit. Here are some common switch types and their characteristics:
- Tactile switches: These switches provide tactile feedback, meaning you can feel a slight bump when the key actuates. This feedback can help you identify when a keypress has been registered. Examples of tactile switches include Cherry MX Brown and Razer Orange.
- Linear switches: Linear switches have a smooth keystroke without any tactile bump or audible click. They provide a consistent and linear typing experience. Popular linear switches include Cherry MX Red and Gateron Yellow.
- Clicky switches: Clicky switches offer both tactile feedback and an audible click sound when the key actuates. The tactile feedback provides a satisfying feel, while the click sound confirms the keystroke. Cherry MX Blue and Razer Green switches are common examples of clicky switches.
By trying out different switch types, you can determine which one suits your typing style, whether you prefer a tactile response, a smooth keystroke, or the audible feedback of a click.
C. Practicing typing techniques for optimal speed and accuracy
While the switch type plays a significant role in your typing experience, honing your typing technique is equally important. Here are some techniques to help improve your typing speed and accuracy:
- Touch typing: Touch typing involves typing without looking at the keyboard, relying on muscle memory to find the keys. Familiarize yourself with the key layout and practice touch typing to build speed and accuracy. Online typing tutorials and software can help you learn and improve touch typing skills.
- Proper finger placement: Positioning your fingers correctly on the home row (ASDF for the left hand, JKL; for the right hand) allows for efficient and accurate typing. Each finger should be responsible for specific keys, minimizing unnecessary finger movement.
- Maintain a relaxed posture: Ensure you maintain a relaxed and ergonomic typing posture. Sit up straight with your feet flat on the floor, and position the keyboard at a comfortable height. Avoid slouching or straining your wrists, as this can lead to discomfort and reduced typing efficiency.
- Take breaks and stretch: Typing for long periods can lead to fatigue and decreased accuracy. Take regular breaks to stretch your fingers, hands, and wrists. Simple exercises like finger stretches and wrist rotations can help alleviate tension and maintain flexibility.
- Practice regularly: Consistent practice is key to improving typing speed and accuracy. Set aside dedicated time to practice typing exercises or participate in typing challenges. By consistently challenging yourself, you can gradually increase your speed and develop muscle memory.
By combining the advantages of mechanical keyboards with effective typing techniques, you can maximize your typing speed and accuracy.
Case Studies and User Experiences
A. Success stories of individuals improving typing speed with mechanical keyboards
Mechanical keyboards have been instrumental in helping numerous individuals improve their typing speed and efficiency. Let’s delve into some success stories that highlight the positive impact of mechanical keyboards on typing performance.
- Sarah’s Story: Sarah, a professional writer, struggled with slow typing speed and often felt frustrated with her productivity. After switching to a mechanical keyboard with tactile switches, she noticed an immediate improvement. The responsive keys and clear feedback allowed her to type faster and with greater precision. Within a few weeks, Sarah’s typing speed increased by over 30%, enabling her to meet tight deadlines and boost her overall efficiency.
- Mark’s Journey: Mark, a college student majoring in computer science, faced challenges in keeping up with programming assignments. Seeking a solution, he invested in a mechanical keyboard with linear switches. The smooth keystrokes and reduced actuation force made a significant difference in his coding speed. Mark’s accuracy also improved as he could effortlessly glide between keys, minimizing errors and debugging time. Thanks to his mechanical keyboard, Mark experienced a remarkable improvement in his programming productivity.
B. Testimonials from users about increased accuracy with mechanical keyboards
Mechanical keyboards have garnered praise from users worldwide for their ability to enhance typing accuracy. Let’s explore some testimonials that emphasize the impact of mechanical keyboards on accuracy and precision.
- John’s Testimonial: “I have always struggled with accuracy when typing on traditional keyboards, often mistyping words or hitting the wrong keys. Since switching to a mechanical keyboard, I have noticed a remarkable improvement in my accuracy. The tactile feedback and consistent actuation force have helped me develop muscle memory and type with greater precision. I no longer waste time correcting errors, and my overall typing experience has become more enjoyable and efficient.”
- Lisa’s Experience: “As a transcriptionist, accuracy is paramount in my work. I switched to a mechanical keyboard with full key rollover, and the difference has been astounding. With my previous keyboard, I often experienced missed or jumbled keystrokes, leading to transcription errors. Since upgrading to a mechanical keyboard, the ghosting issue has completely disappeared, and I can confidently transcribe audio files with exceptional accuracy. It has significantly improved my productivity and client satisfaction.”
These success stories and testimonials highlight the tangible benefits of using mechanical keyboards. By improving typing speed and accuracy, individuals can enhance their overall productivity, whether they are professionals, students, or enthusiasts.
Selecting the Right Mechanical Keyboard for Your Needs
When it comes to selecting the right mechanical keyboard for your needs, there are several factors to consider. Taking these factors into account will ensure that you choose a keyboard that not only meets your typing requirements but also enhances your overall typing experience. Let’s delve into the details:
A. Factors to consider when choosing a mechanical keyboard:
- Typing preferences (tactile, linear, or clicky): One of the primary considerations when choosing a mechanical keyboard is your typing preference. Mechanical switches come in different types, each offering a distinct typing feel. Tactile switches provide a noticeable bump when a key is actuated, giving you a tactile feedback. Linear switches, on the other hand, provide a smooth keystroke without any tactile feedback. Clicky switches combine tactile feedback with an audible click sound. Understanding your preference for tactile feedback and audible feedback will help you select the most suitable switch type for your typing style.
- Keycap materials and design: The keycaps on a mechanical keyboard can greatly impact your typing experience. Keycap materials, such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) and PBT (polybutylene terephthalate), offer different textures, durability, and overall typing feel. ABS keycaps are commonly found and provide a smooth feel, but they may wear out over time. PBT keycaps, on the other hand, are more durable and have a textured surface, providing a better grip. Considering the keycap material and design can ensure that you choose a keyboard that feels comfortable and suits your typing style.
- Additional features (backlighting, programmable macros): Mechanical keyboards often come with additional features that can enhance your typing experience. Backlighting, for example, provides illumination on the keys, making it easier to type in low-light environments. Some keyboards also offer customizable backlighting effects for personalization. Programmable macros allow you to assign custom commands or shortcuts to specific keys, improving your efficiency and productivity. Consider whether these additional features align with your preferences and if they will contribute to an improved typing experience.
B. Popular mechanical keyboard brands and models:
With the increasing popularity of mechanical keyboards, numerous brands and models have emerged in the market. Some well-known and reputable brands include:
- Logitech: Known for their high-quality keyboards, Logitech offers a range of mechanical keyboards suitable for various typing needs. Their keyboards often feature customizable backlighting and programmable macros.
- Corsair: Corsair is renowned for its gaming keyboards, which often come equipped with mechanical switches. These keyboards usually offer features like RGB backlighting, dedicated media keys, and advanced software for customization.
- Ducky: Ducky keyboards are highly regarded for their build quality and durability. They offer a wide range of mechanical keyboards with different switch options and keycap materials, allowing for a customizable typing experience.
- Razer: Razer keyboards are popular among gamers and typists alike. Their keyboards often feature Razer’s own mechanical switches, customizable backlighting, and programmable macros, catering to both functionality and aesthetics.
- Anne Pro: Anne Pro keyboards are known for their compact form factor and wireless capabilities. They offer a range of mechanical switches and customizable backlighting options, making them suitable for both professional and casual use.
Exploring these popular brands and their models can help you narrow down your options and find a mechanical keyboard that meets your specific needs and preferences.
By considering factors such as typing preferences, keycap materials and design, additional features, and popular brands and models, you can make an informed decision when selecting the right mechanical keyboard for your needs. Remember, choosing a keyboard that aligns with your preferences and provides a comfortable typing experience will greatly enhance your overall satisfaction and productivity.
Maintenance and Care of Mechanical Keyboards
Proper maintenance and care of mechanical keyboards are essential to ensure their optimal performance and longevity. In this section, we will delve into the detailed steps involved in cleaning and preventing debris buildup, lubricating and maintaining the switches, as well as proper storage and protection of mechanical keyboards.
A. Cleaning and preventing debris buildup:
To keep your mechanical keyboard in pristine condition, regular cleaning is crucial. Here are the steps you can follow:
- Start by unplugging the keyboard or turning off any wireless connectivity.
- Use compressed air to blow away loose debris and dust particles from the surface of the keyboard. Hold the canister in an upright position and use short bursts of air to avoid any moisture buildup.
- For a more thorough cleaning, remove the keycaps from the keyboard. Gently pry them off using a keycap puller or your fingers. Take care not to exert excessive force to prevent any damage.
- Once the keycaps are removed, you can clean them individually. Use a mild cleaning solution or soapy water and a soft brush or cloth to gently scrub away any dirt or stains. Avoid using harsh chemicals or abrasive materials that may damage the keycaps.
- Wipe down the exposed surface of the keyboard using a microfiber cloth or a lint-free cloth dampened with isopropyl alcohol. This will help disinfect and remove any grime or oils that may have accumulated.
- Pay special attention to the area around the switches and the keycap stems. Use a cotton swab or a soft brush to clean these hard-to-reach areas thoroughly.
- Allow the keycaps to air dry completely before reattaching them to the keyboard.
- Finally, plug in or turn on your keyboard and test the keys to ensure they are working correctly.
Regular cleaning will help prevent debris buildup, maintain the tactile feel of the switches, and prolong the overall lifespan of your mechanical keyboard.
B. Lubrication and maintenance of switches:
Lubricating the switches is an optional but beneficial step that can enhance the typing experience and prolong the life of your keyboard. Here’s how you can perform switch lubrication:
- Start by acquiring a suitable lubricant specifically designed for mechanical switches. It’s essential to choose a lubricant that is safe to use on plastic components and won’t cause any damage.
- Unplug the keyboard or turn off any wireless connectivity before proceeding with the lubrication process.
- Remove the keycaps to expose the switches. This can be done by gently prying them off using a keycap puller or your fingers.
- Apply a small amount of lubricant to the stem of each switch. Be careful not to use too much as excess lubricant can affect the switch’s performance.
- Use a small brush or a cotton swab to evenly distribute the lubricant on the switch stem.
- Operate the lubricated switches repeatedly to ensure the lubricant spreads evenly and smoothly.
- Once you have lubricated all the switches, allow them to dry for a few minutes before reattaching the keycaps.
- Finally, plug in or turn on your keyboard and test the keys to ensure they are functioning correctly.
Regular switch lubrication can help reduce friction, minimize switch noise, and maintain the smooth and consistent feel of the switches over time.
C. Proper storage and protection:
Proper storage and protection of your mechanical keyboard are crucial to safeguard it from dust, moisture, and physical damage. Here are some tips to ensure your keyboard stays in optimal condition:
- Store your keyboard in a clean, dry, and dust-free environment. Avoid exposing it to extreme temperatures or humidity.
- If you need to transport your keyboard, consider using a protective case or sleeve to prevent any accidental bumps or scratches.
- Avoid eating or drinking near your keyboard to prevent spills and debris from getting inside the switches.
- If you are not using the keyboard for an extended period, consider unplugging it or turning off any wireless connectivity to conserve power and prevent any potential electrical issues.
- Regularly inspect the keyboard for any signs of wear, loose connections, or damaged keycaps. Address any issues promptly to prevent further damage.
By following these maintenance and care practices, you can ensure that your mechanical keyboard remains in excellent condition, providing you with a satisfying and reliable typing experience for years to come.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
How do mechanical keyboards differ from regular keyboards?
Mechanical keyboards differ from regular keyboards in their individual mechanical switches beneath each key, providing a more tactile and responsive typing experience.
Can mechanical keyboards improve my typing speed?
Yes, mechanical keyboards can improve typing speed due to factors such as reduced actuation force, shorter key travel distance, and the ability to register multiple simultaneous key presses accurately.
Are mechanical keyboards louder than regular keyboards?
Mechanical keyboards can produce more audible feedback due to the clicky switches, but not all mechanical keyboards are loud. Silent or tactile switches offer quieter alternatives.
What is key rollover and why is it important?
Key rollover refers to a keyboard’s ability to register multiple keystrokes simultaneously. It is important as it ensures that all key presses are accurately detected, eliminating the risk of missed or ignored keystrokes.
Which switch type should I choose for typing?
The choice of switch type depends on personal preference. Tactile switches provide tactile feedback, linear switches offer smooth keystrokes, and clicky switches provide both tactile feedback and audible clicks. Trying out different switch types can help determine the most suitable one for your typing style.
Conclusion: The Impact of Mechanical Keyboards on Typing Speed and Accuracy
Mechanical keyboards have a significant impact on typing speed and accuracy. With their enhanced tactile feedback, reduced actuation force, and improved key rollover, mechanical keyboards offer typists a more comfortable and efficient typing experience. By understanding the benefits of mechanical keyboards and selecting the right model, individuals can enhance their productivity and enjoy a more satisfying typing journey.